Copyright: Exceptions

Copyright advice on creative rights regarding research submissions to the Repository.

A number of Exceptions to the Copyright & Data Protection Act (1988) have been devised (and revised in 2014) to further enable the use of Copyright works in the context of Education and Research without the need to obtain further permission. 

Types of Exception

Name of exception


Activities covered

CDPA section

Research or private study

Allows students and researchers to make copies of copyright works for non-commercial research or private study.

Making personal copies of extracts from books and journals

Copying images to use as stimulus in research study

Section 29


Allows anyone to reproduce copyright works for the purpose of quotation where it is fair

Includes presenting extracts from books, journals and musical works to students

Potential use of whole works where the use is fair

Section 30

Accessible copying

Allows individuals or institutions to provide equal access to copyright works for users with any type disability

Digitising print material

Format shifting text to audio

Creating subtitles for videos

Sections 31A-F

Illustration for instruction

Allows teachers or students to use copyright work in teaching or study where the use is fair

Including text, images, music or video in teaching slides and lecture recordings

Adding content to examination papers

Section 32

Educational performance

Allows any copyright work that can be performed, played or shown in an educational setting to be performed played or shown

Screening a film in a lecture, playing musical sound recordings in class, performance of a play in class (ie not for an external audience)

Section 34

Recording of broadcasts

Allows educational establishment to record TV and radio broadcasts and make them available to students

Underpins the University’s use of BoB Online TV streaming service

Section 35

Making multiple copies

Allows educational institutions to copy up to 5% of a copyright work and supply multiple copies to students

Copying of book extracts not covered by the CLA licence

Copying up to 5% of a film or sound recording and making it available to students on Moodle

Section 36

adapted with permission from University of Kent's "Copyright: What You Need to Know"